Big Book About Phonographs This article is also duplicated in A Big Book About Phonographs.





263 Machines and Their Makers: 1916 - 1923

By R.J. Wakeman (With Trademark Information Supplied By Allan Sutton)

For two decades, America's talking machine industry was dominated by Victor, Columbia, and Edison. As basic patents held by these three companies began to expire in the World War I years, many new companies entered this lucrative field. It was a good time to market phonographs since demand exceeded supply.

Most advertised in the trade journal Talking Machine World (TMW). While reading issues dated August 1916 through the 1920s, I prepared a list of "off brands." Not including major companies--Aeolian, Brunswick, Columbia, Edison, Pathe, Sonora, Victor--the list totaled over 260 companies!

Some enjoyed national distribution--examples are Cheney and Starr--whereas others were strictly local in distribution. It was not unusual for a furniture, department, piano, or music store to sell phonographs under its own name. To supply these stores, many cabinet manufacturing firms made and sold complete phonographs while others sold just the cabinets. Motors, reproducers, tone arms, and other hardware could be purchased from a number of independent manufacturers. The Otto Heineman Phonograph Supply Company was especially important for providing basic parts.

Not every phonograph manufacturer is represented in the following list. I have seen two upright machines of WWI vintage bearing the name Colonial, but no such company advertised in TMW. Some regional companies evidently felt that advertising dollars would be poorly spent in a national trade publication such as TMW. Heavy advertising in the talking machine industry's leading trade publication did not guarantee brisk sales. Delphion paid for large ads in nearly every issue from late 1916 to 1918, yet only a handful of Delphion machines are known to exist.

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With some 200 phonograph brands on the market, executives of new firms undoubtedly had difficulty selecting distinct and memorable names for their products. Some companies limited their range of possibilities by following the trend of adding "-ola" to a prefix.

The Robinola's name no doubt was derived from the robin's reputation for song. The Harmonola's name was clearly derived from "harmony." Surprisingly, no company thought to add "-ola" to "song" for a company name--that name is found only in fiction. Fannie Kilbourne wrote a delightful series of "Will and Dot" short stories which appeared in American Magazine during the 1920s and were about Will and Dot Horton, a young up-to-date couple with small twins. The Hortons had neighbors who were making payments on their "Songola."

Some owners added "-ola" to their names. For example, William Tonk called his machine the Tonkola. The machine made by Sachs and Company was called the Saxola.

Some company owners simply named the machine after themselves- -Cheney, Emerson, Heintzman, Wilson, Steger, Crafts, Onken, Weser.

By 1919 most phonograph cabinets were made of veneers. High quality three- and five-ply veneers were produced and were excellent for phonograph cabinets. Mahogany, walnut, oak, birch, and gum were woods most often used, mahogany and oak being the most popular. Spruce was the most favored wood for internal horns. Because of its evenly proportioned grain, spruce was considered to provide an ideal sound chamber. Norway pine, hemlock, balsam fir, and white pine were also used.

Several firms made wicker cabinets though these were not common. These were considered the best cabinets for use outdoors. The Lakeside Supply Company's "Art-Kraft Luxfibre" case sold for $200 to $300, depending on finish and hardware.

Most tone arms sold by independent manufacturers were of the "universal" type which held reproducers that could be turned and positioned to play either lateral or vertical shellac records. The tone arms varied in size and shape, but most were composed of two or more sections and were not truly tapered in design since that would violate the tapered tone arm patent owned by the Victor Talking Machine Company. To the dismay of collectors today, many of these "off brand" phonographs have tone arms and reproducers made of pot metal, which has not aged well and now tends to be brittle and break easily. They are difficult to repair or replace though some collectors have made successful repairs using epoxy resins.

Although machines shared some qualities, unique designs were carefully advertised. The Hoffay was advertised as being "airtight" for better sound production. The Brooks featured an automatic repeater and stop device. The Classique featured a rubber turntable and tone arm. The Dolce-Tone had a reproducer with a fabric diaphragm. The Fulton had a spun internal horn. The Olympian was advertised as a small "apartment sized" console. The Ko-Hi-Ola was a tall structure that contained a phonograph, some record shelves, a large clock on top, and even a "secret" compartment. The internal horn of the Crystola was made of mirror-polished plate glass, which must have made these phonographs delicate and difficult to ship. The Ceramiphone featured a ceramic horn. Perhaps the most remarkable was the Shell-O-Phone which featured an internal horn made from a large conch-shell collected on the beach of a South Seas island.

Deca-Disc and Marvelola produced semi-automatic models that could play in succession a small stack of discs. The Electric was a coin-operated automatic phonograph that held 24 cylinders. The Lyradion was one of the first radio-phonograph cabinets (April 1922); a 2-stage D.C. Westinghouse receiver was included. The Phono-Grand, made by the J.P. Seeburg Piano Co. and advertised as "small enough...to fit the apartment of the man of moderate means," was a combined talking machine and player piano, playing regular 78 rpm discs and standard Q.R.S. 88 note player rolls. The Phonola was an upright cabinet which was collapsible; advertisements claimed it could be assembled in 60 seconds. Instead of having a grille in front of its horn, the Ton-O-Graf had sliding shutters which could be adjusted "for perfect tone control."

Pressing a button on the Supreme illuminated three lights, one each for the turntable, tone chamber, and record compartment. Most impressive was the grille that contained stained glass and was beautifully illuminated by the tone chamber light. The grille could be swiveled to an open position when playing records. Many Supreme models came with electric motors.

Machines were made for children, some being small upright or console models though more were small table models. The Diamond Juvenile console, well-crafted in simple "Mission" style," was painted white with blue trim and had a 9-inch turntable. Other brands were Baby, Bobolink, Kiddiephone, and Toyphone.

Several firms manufactured phonograph lamps. The Phonolamp was perhaps the most amazing because of its stained glass shade. The Modernola was an upright phonograph with a large lamp elevated above the cabinet. The Lampograph was yet another brand. Several firms manufactured phonographs with the shape and appearance of baby grand pianos, such as the Venus Belle, Phono-Grand and Fern-O-Grand.

Library tables with a phonograph concealed inside were produced by Librola, Phonographic Table, and Tabla-tone. For the latter the phonograph was held within a pull-out drawer.

Blue Amberola

Beginning around 1916, several firms produced portable "suitcase" models. A few, such as the Stewart Military and the Recruit, were originally designed for soldiers and sailors. Other early makers of portables were Piknik, Cirola, Melophone, Portola, and Spraytone. In the summer of 1921 portable models were advertised extensively as ideal for picnics, camping, and back porch listening.

Firms made record cabinets in all shapes and styles. The Schloss Brothers in New York and the Udell Works in Indianapolis made cabinets specifically to hold the common Victor and Columbia table models. Some cabinets held the phonograph exposed on top of the cabinet. The phonograph was held within some other cabinets and could be covered by a lid. Other record cabinet firms were Berkeley Cabinet Company, Herzog Art Furniture Company, George A. Long Cabinet Company, C.J. Lundstrom Manufacturing Company, Pooley Furniture Company, and Value-Tone Talking Machine Manufacturing Company.

Some of the 260 plus companies produced records. With only a few exceptions, such as Emerson, records made before 1919 were vertical cut. Emerson, Paramount, Rex, and Starr cut their own material. The New York Recording Laboratories of Port Washington, Wisconsin, which pressed Paramount discs, supplied records for Harmograph, Mozart, and Puritan. Pathe produced pressings for Empire and World. The Bell Record Corporation produced records for Schubert. Resona had record sources from Paramount, Plaza, and Emerson. Cardinal produced its own records until 1922 when its records came from Starr. According to Brian Rust's The American Record Label Book, Phonolamp issued less than a dozen recordings. They were not sold individually but were included with a Phonolamp purchase. Grey Gull was the source of these rare discs. Arrow and Mandel also briefly sold records.

Although many companies had main offices or manufacturing facilities in Chicago or New York City, the center for cabinet production was Michigan, especially in and around Grand Rapids. The famous Berkey and Gay Furniture Co. of Grand Rapids made cabinets for the Cheney Talking Machine Company. Cheney also made cabinets at another facility in Grand Rapids. American, Art Craft, Crescent, L'Artiste, Lauzon, and Widdicomb phonographs were made in Grand Rapids. The Aeolian Company had an assembly plant on Lyon Street. Metal parts for talking machines were produced by the Grand Rapids Brass Company, the Grand Rapids Foundry Company, the Otto Heineman Phonograph Supply Company, and the Rathbone Fireplace Manufacturing Company.

Grand Rapids held semi-annual furniture exhibits. Several downtown buildings were used, most notably the Gilbert and Klingman Exhibition Buildings and the Furniture Temple. By the late 'teens the talking machine industry had taken over most of the exhibits, companies competing with elaborate machine displays and demonstrations. The Otto Heineman Company (later the General Phonograph Corporation) turned over the first floor of its Okeh Building to exhibits.

Other areas of Michigan produced phonographs. In mid-1919 the Sonora Phonograph Company opened an assembly factory in Saginaw and the company headquarters were finally moved, in the summer of 1927, to Saginaw. The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company had major facilities in Muskegon. The Bush and Lane and Cecilaphone phonographs were made in Holland, the Delpheon in Bay City, the Dulcitone in South Haven, and the Manophone in Adrian.

When were machines being sold? H. B. Bibb, sales manager of the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, produced a pie chart for the June 1919 issue of TMW. Each of the chart's twelve slices represents a percentage of sales of a given month. The chart, prepared from data collected from all parts of the U.S. and from merchants selling various makes of talking machines, shows that nearly half of the annual sales of talking machines were made in November and December. Manufacturers and dealers knew well in advance to have abundant supplies ready for holiday sales. Because many homes had new machines in December, January was generally good for record sales.

Because the Christmas season was universally recognized as the year's most important season for sales, new companies often introduced their models in the autumn, in time for dealers to place orders. If we can judge from advertisements in TMW, more new companies introduced machines in the months of August, September and October of 1917 than during any other quarter year of the acoustic era. Had the industry not suffered severe shortages in 1918, the autumn months of 1918 might have matched those of 1917 in the introduction of new companies.

By mid-1920 signs of an oversold market and a general business slow-down were evident. On June 5, 1920, A. J. Kendrick of the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company sent this message to Brunswick dealers: "It is quite reasonable to anticipate that some manufacturers will shortly find themselves seriously presented with a condition of overproduction, and unless he has fortified himself against such a period he and his dealers must inevitably suffer when that time comes." By 1921 overproduction and a business depression marked the end of the phonograph boom. Most of the 260 plus companies were forced out of business.

Some companies of the late 'teens did not last as long as 1920 despite a boom. Bankruptcies were routinely announced in TMW. For example, the October 1917 issue announced the auctioning of the Flemish Phonograph Co. to take place on November 20 at 10:30 AM at the Flemish factory in Brooklyn. The inventory included 2,000 "complete" phonographs and 40,000 records.

Machines advertised in TMW

Here are machines that were advertised in Talking Machine World (TMW) from August 1916 to 1923. Not included are a half dozen major companies--for example, Edison, Columbia, and Victor--since the histories of big companies are told in various books.

Dates indicate the first time machines were advertised in TMW. The August 1916 issue is the earliest I have examined, and it is possible that machines given the date "August 1916" had been advertised in earlier issues.

Knowing when a machine was first advertised in TMW is useful since an advertising debut in TMW generally indicated when a new machine was actually marketed for the first time.

In parenthesis are dates for known trademark applications, generously provided by researcher Allan Sutton. Not all companies registered their trademarks.

1. Adora -- Adora Phonograph Company, 242 E. Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Michigan. May 1920.

2. Alethetone -- Stevens Organ and Piano Company, Marietta, Ohio. April 1917.

3. Ambassador -- Ambassador Phonograph Co., Suite 300, 19 West Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. October 1921.

4. American -- American Phonograph Co., 111 Lyon Street, Grand Rapids, Michigan. August 1917.

5. American Maid -- C. John A. Woods and Son, 30 Church Street, New York. March 1918.

6. Americanola -- American Talking Machine Co., Bloomsberg, Pennsylvania. August 1920.

7. Amerinola -- Amerinola Company, 1 Vandalia Avenue, Cincinnati Ohio. January 1920.

8. Angelus -- Angelus Phonograph Co., 1249 Lexington Ave., New York City. August 1917. (Trademark filed 5/2/1918 by Wilcox & White, Meriden Connecticut; used since 5/15/1917.)

9. Arietta -- Roundtree Corporation, Richmond, Virginia. July 1920.

10. Armoniola -- Thomas Manufacturing Company, Dayton, Ohio. November 1916.

11. Arrow -- Arrow Phonograph Corporation, 16 West 39th Street, New York City. February 1920.

12. Art Craft Line -- The Art Craft Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. September 1918.

13. Artofola -- The Artofola Company, Springfield, Illinois. October 1916.

14. Artophone -- Artophone Company, 1113 Olive Street, St. Louis, Missouri. September 1916. (Trademark filed 3/27/1916; used since 5/1915.)

15. Ashland -- Ashland Manufacturing Company, 43rd and Hermitage Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. November 1916.

16. Autophone -- Autophone Co., 117 Cypress Ave., New York City, New York. February 1919.

17. Baby -- Garford Manufacturing Company, Elyria, Ohio. February 1919.

18. Beacon -- Beacon Phonograph Company, 248 Boylston Street, Boston, Massachusetts. January 1920. (Trademark filed 2/25/1920; used since 11/18/1919.)

19. Belcanto -- The Belcanto Co., 130 West 42nd Street, New York City, New York. March 1919.

20. Blandin -- Racine Phonograph Company, Inc., Racine, Wisconsin. July 1920.

21. Blue Bird -- Blue Bird Talking Machine Company, Los Angeles, California. November 1920.

22. Bobolink -- A.C. Gilbert Co., 460 Blatchley Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut. October 1921.

23. Brendonne -- Brendonne Corporation, 9 Central Ave., Newark, New Jersey. December 1920.

24. Brooks -- Brooks Manufacturing Company, Saginaw, Michigan. September 1916.

25. Bush and Lane -- Bush and Lane Piano Company, Holland, Michigan. September 1918.

26. Campbell -- Campbell Industries, 36 State Street, Chicago, Illinois. July 1920.

27. Cardinal -- Cardinal Phonograph Company, Zanesville, Ohio. September 1919. (Trademark filed 7/10/1919 by the Art Cabinet Co., Newark, New Jersey; used since 5/15/1919.)

28. Carmen -- G. W. Huntley and Co., 25 East Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois. December 1920.

29. Cathedral -- Cathedral Phonograph Company, Omaha, Nebraska. July 1920. (Trademark filed 1/26/1920 by the United Phonograph Corp., Omaha; used since 10/1/1919.)

30. Cecilaphone -- Bush and Lane Piano Company, Holland, Michigan. July 1918. (Named after Saint Cecilia, patron saint of music.)

31. Century -- Century Cabinet Company, 25 West 45th Street, New York City. August 1917.

32. Ceramiphone -- Smith-Phillips Music Company, East Liverpool, Ohio. March 1920. (Features a ceramic horn.)

33. Charmaphone -- R. L. Kenyon Manufacturing Company, 39 West 32nd Street, New York City, New York. October 1918.

34. Cheney -- Cheney Talking Machine Co., 24 N. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. March 1918. (Trademark filed 8/30/1919; used since 8/24/1916.)

35. Chorister -- Chorister Phonograph Co., 336 West 63rd Street, Chicago, Illinois. January 1920.

36. Cirola -- Cirola Phonograph Corporation, 1227 Germantown Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. May 1920.

37. Classique -- Classique Phonograph Corporation, 410 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. November 1917.

38. Claxtonola -- Brenard Manufacturing Company, Iowa City, Iowa. January 1919. (Trademark filed 5/2/1919; used since 3/15/1919.)

39. Clayola -- Bristol and Barber Co., Inc., 3 East 14th Street, New York City. November 1922.

40. Cleartone -- The Lucky 13 Phonograph Co., 3 East 12th Street, New York City. September 1917.

41. Cleola -- Tyrola Phonograph Company, Wilmette, Illinois. January 1920.

42. Compatophone -- The Sterno Manufacturing Company, Ltd., 19 City Road, London, England. October 1916.

43. Concertola -- World Phonograph Co., 218 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. March 1917.

44. Consola -- Consolidated Talking Machine Company, 227 West Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois. November 1917.

45. Cowan -- The Classique Phonograph Corporation, 401 N. Lincoln Street, Chicago, Illinois. October 1917.

46. Crafts -- A. J. Crafts Piano Company, Richmond, Virginia. January 1920.

47. Cremonia -- Cremonia Phonograph Company, 14 Wall Street, New York City. April 1919.

48. Crescent -- Crescent Talking Machine Company, 89 Chambers Street, New York City, New York. August 1916. (Trademark filed 8/15/1919; used since 3/1914.)

49. Crippen -- The Crippen Company, Inc., 427 5th Avenue, New York City. January 1920. (Trademark filed 12/6/1919; used since 12/1918.)

50. Crosley -- Crosley Phonograph Co., 1 Vandalia Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio. February 1920.

51. Crystola -- Crystola Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. August 1917. (Has crystal tone chamber.)

52. Culptone -- Culp Phonograph Company, 240 Broadway, New York City, New York. October 1918. (Trademark filed 8/16/1921 by Abraham Culp, New York; used since 10/1918.)

53. Dalion -- Milwaukee Talking Machine Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. January 1920. (Trademark filed 7/30/1919; used since 2/26/1919.)

54. Davenola -- Davenport Cabinet Works, 829 W. 2nd Street, Davenport, Iowa. November 1919.

55. Deca-Disc -- Deca-Disc Phonograph Co., Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. March 1922.

56. Delpheon -- The Delpheon Co., 810 Boutell Place, Bay City, Michigan. September 1916. (Trademark filed 8/14/1916 by Charles J. Bousfield, Bay City, Michigan; used since 7/7/1916.)

57. Deterling -- Deterling Manufacturing Company, Tipton, Indiana. March 1920.

58. Diamond -- Diamond Products Corporation, 25 West 43rd Street, New York City. June 1922.

59. Dolce-Tone -- Reed, Dawson, and Co., 6 West Park Street, Newark, New Jersey. October 1917.

60. Domestic -- Domestic Talking Machine Corporation, 33rd and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. August 1916. (Trademark filed 6/22/1916; used since 2/14/1916.)

61. Dulciphone -- Grand Talking Machine Company, 366 Adam Street, Brooklyn, New York. February 1917.

62. Dulcitone -- Cable-Nelson Piano Co., Republic Building, Chicago, Illinois. February 1919. (Trademark filed 4/14/1919; used since 1/1918.)

63. Dusonto -- The Belcanto Company, Inc., 130 West 42nd Street, New York City. January 1920. (Trademark filed 5/17/1919; used since 5/6/1919.)

64. Eclipse -- Eclipse Phonograph Co., 51 Law-rence Street, Newark, New Jersey. March 1917.

65. Edmondson -- Edmondson Phonograph Company, 16 Washington Avenue, Irvington, New Jersey. November 1916.

66. Electric -- Electric Phonograph Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan. September 1920.

67. Elmbro -- Elmbro Talking Machine Company, St. Paul, Minnesota. April 1918.

68. Embrola -- Embrola Talking Machine Co., Department A, St. Paul, Minnesota. January 1918.

69. Emerson -- Emerson Phonograph Company, Inc., 206 Fifth Avenue, New York City, New York. April 1920. (Trademark filed 11/24/1919; used on phonographs since 9/15/1919.)

70. Empire -- Empire Talking Machine Company, 429 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. September 1916. (Trademark filed 12/20/1915; used since 12/3/1915; re-filed by The Udell Works, Indianapolis, 8/7/1924.)

71. Eubanola -- Ramos-Eubank Phonograph Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Virginia. March 1919.

72. Eufonola -- Acme Cabinet Company, 116 W. 32nd Street, New York City. November 1916.

73. Excel -- Excel Cabinet Co., 136 West 23rd Street, New York City, New York. February 1920.

74. Favorite -- Favorite Talking Machine Co., 438 Broadway, New York City. September 1916.

75. Favorola -- Bon-Ton Manufacturing Co., 211 S. Broadway, St. Louis, Missouri. October 1920.

76. Fern-O-Grand -- Fern-O-Grand Co., 212 West Central Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio. March 1920.

77. Firestone -- Firestone Phonograph Co., 59 East van Buren Street, Chicago, Illinois. April 1919.

78. Fischer -- J. and C. Fischer, Inc., 417 West 28th Street, New York City. March 1922. (Trademark filed 3/19/1920; used since 11/9/1920.)

79. Flemish -- Lynn Phonograph Company, 37th Street, Brooklyn, New York. August 1916.

80. Fraad -- Fraad Talking Machine Company, Inc., 225 Lexington Avenue, New York City, New York. October 1916.

81. Franklin -- Franklin Phonograph Company, 10th and Columbia Avenues, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. January 1920.

82. Fullertone -- Fullertone Phonograph Products, Incorporated. January 1922.

83. Fulton -- Fulton-Alden Company, Inc., Waukegan, Illinois. November 1917. (Trademark filed 6/23/1919 by Fulton Bros. Mfg. Co., Waukegan; used since approximately 2/1/1917.)

84. Gabelola -- Gabel's Entertainer Company, 210 North Ann St., Chicago, Illinois. December 1917.

85. Garford -- The Garford Manufacturing Company, Elyria, Ohio. February 1919.

86. General -- General Phonograph Manufacturing Company, Elyria, Ohio. November 1921.

87. Granby -- Granby Phonograph Corporation, Levy Building, Newport News, Virginia. December 1921.

88. Grande -- Grande Phonograph Company, 25 West Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. September 1920.

89. Hallet and Davis -- Hallet and Davis Company, Boston, Massachusetts. April 1922.

90. Harmonia -- Harmonia Talking Machine Company, 47 West 34th Street, New York City, New York. June 1920.

91. Harmonola -- The Harmonola Company, 1611 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. October 1916.

92. Harponola -- The Celina Furniture Company, 101 Mercelina Park, Celina, Ohio. November 1917.

93. Harpvola -- Harpvola Talking Machine Co., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. November 1916.

94. Harrolla -- King Talking Machine Company, 11 West 25th St., New York City. January 1917.

95. Hawthorn -- Southern California Hardwood and Manufacturing Company, 1430 South Alameda St., Los Angeles, California. September 1918.

96. Hayne'ola -- Hayne'ola Phonograph Corporation, Ottawa, Illinois. January 1917.

97. Heintzman -- Gerhard Heintzman Ltd., Sherborne St., Toronto, Canada. September 1919.

98. Heywood-Wakefield -- Heywood Brothers and Wakefield Company, Gardner and Wakefield, Massachusetts. January 1920.

99. Hexaphone -- The Regina Company, 47 West 34th Street, New York City. February 1917.

100. Hiawatha -- Hiawatha-Ottawa Pianophone Company, Ottawa, Illinois. May 1917.

101. Hoffay -- Hoffay Talking Machine Company, 3 West 29th St., New York City. February 1919.

102. Humanatone -- Humanatone Talking Machine Company, 254 North 10th Street, Brooklyn, New York. February 1917.

103. Humanola -- Humanola Talking Machine Company, Meyersdale, Pennsylvania. August 1917. (Trademark filed 2/29/1916 by Baldwin & Livengood, Meyersdale; used since 3/1/1915.)

104. Ideal -- United Talking Machine Company, 178 Emmet St., Newark, New Jersey. March 1917.

105. Imperial -- Imperial Talking Machine Company, 9 Vandever Avenue Wilmington, Delaware. January 1917.

106. Independent -- Independent Talking Machine Company, Inc., 12 East 42nd Street, New York City, New York. November 1919.

107. International -- International Talking Machine Company, 1719 West Van Buren Street, Chicago, Illinois. August 1916.

108. Interpretone -- Crippen Company, New York City, New York. April 1920.

109. Jewett -- Jewett Phonograph Company, 958 Penobscot Building, Detroit, Michigan. July 1921.

110 Kamp-Fone -- Kamp-Fone Health Builders, Inc., 334 5th Avenue, New York City, New York. April 1923.

111. Kiddiephone -- The Wilkins Toy Company, Keene, New Hampshire. January 1917.

112. Kimball -- W. W. Kimball Company, Kimball Building, Chicago, Illinois. May 1920. (Trademark filed 2/5/1918; used since 1/15/1918.)

113. Ko-Hi-Ola -- Koehler and Hinrichs, St. Paul, Minnesota. November 1916.

114. Koch-O-Phone -- Ands Koch, 296 Broadway, New York City, New York. May 1917.

115. Lakeside -- Lakeside Supply Company, 416 South Dearborn St., Chicago, Illinois. April 1920.

116. Lampograph -- Frank H. Feraud, 1911 State Street, Granite City, Illinois. December 1918.

117. L'Artiste -- Grand Rapids Phonograph Company, 1400 Front Avenue, Grand Rapids, Michigan. May 1919. (Trademark filed 8/4/1919 by Grand Rapids School Equipment Co., Grand Rapids; used since 7/21/1919.)

118. Lauzon -- Michigan Phonograph Company, 705 Ashton Building, Grand Rapids, Michigan. February 1919.

119. Lawson -- Lawson Piano Company, 372 East 149th Street, New York City. January 1920.

120. Liberty -- Liberty Phonograph Co., 313 Wilmac Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota. June 1918.

121. Librola -- Seaburg Manufacturing Company, Jamestown, New York. April 1920.

122. Linerphone -- Linerphone Talking Machine Company, 1801 Nebraska Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. October 1918.

123. Lone-Star -- Texas Talking Machine Company, Dallas, Texas. November 1921.

124. Lorophone -- Lorimer-Hicks Manufacturing Company, Republic Building, Chicago, Illinois. February 1917. (Trademark filed 7/10/1916 from Troy, Ohio; used since 9/15/1915.)

125. Ludlow -- A.J. Crafts Piano Company, 218 N. 2nd Street, Richmond, Virginia. November 1919.

126. Lynertone -- Lynertone Talking Machine Co., 18 West 20th St., New York City. October 1919.

127. Lyradion -- Lyradion Sales and Engineering Company, Mishawaka, Indiana.

128. Lyreola -- Lyre-Ola Manufacturing Company, 1504 Pine Street, St. Louis, Missouri. April 1920.

129. Lyrian -- Lyrian Phonograph Company, 621 Main Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. November 1916.

130. Maestro -- Lanski Company, 1414 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. April 1920.

131. Maestrola -- Sound Reproduction Company, Inc., 56 Liberty Street, New York City, New York. September 1916. (Trademark filed 5/20/1916; used since 5/1/1916.)

132. Mag-Ni-Phone -- Charles W. Shonk Company, 707 St. Charles Street, Maywood, Illinois. October 1916.

133. Magnola -- Magnola Talking Machine Company, 711 Milwauke Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. September 1916.

134. Majestic -- Majestic Phonograph Company, McClure Building, 218 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. August 1916. (Trademark filed 4/28/1916; used since approximately 2/1/1916.)

135. Mandel -- Mandel Manufacturing Company, 501 Laflin Street, Chicago, Illinois. August 1916. (Trademark filed 5/3/1919; used since 11/1915.)

136. Manophone -- James Manoil Company, Inc., 60 Broadway, New York City. August 1916. (Trademark filed 7/25/1916; used since 7/15/1916.)

137. Marvelon -- Marvelon Phonograph Co., 508 Arcade Building, St. Louis, Missouri. March 1920.

138. Marveola -- Weser Brothers, 524 West 23rd Street, New York City, New York. January 1920.

139. Mascot -- Mascot Talking Machine Company, 66 West 37th Street, New York City. August 1916.

140. Mastertone -- Iroquois Sales Corporation, 10 N. Division St., Buffalo, New York. March 1920.

141. Mellowtone -- Melophone Talking Machine Company, 376 Lafayette Street, New York City, New York. August 1916.

142. Melodia -- Melodia Phonograph Co., 400 N. Sangamon Street, Chicago, Illinois. February 1920. (Trademark filed 4/5/1920; used since 7/5/1919.)

143. Melodograph -- Melodograph Corporation, 142 W. 14th St., New York City. November 1916. (Trademark filed 10/19/1916; used since 6/1/1916.)

144. Melody -- Melody National Sales Co., 190 N. State Street, Chicago, Illinois. November 1922.

145. Melophone -- Melophone Talking Machine Company, 376 Lafayette Street, New York City, New York. November 1916.

146. Meteor -- Meteor Motor Car Company, Piqua, Ohio. May 1917.

147. Metro -- Metro Phonograph Company, 55 Vesey Street, New York City. September 1919.

148. Metrophone -- Franz Bruckner Manufacturing Company, 405 Broadway, New York City, New York. October 1916. (Allan Sutton, whose extensive research on recording industry trademarks has been invaluable, reports that the Mills Novelty Company, Chicago, filed a trademark on Metrophone on May 5, 1917, but adds that it is not certain that these are the same.)

149. Mockingbird -- Edwin M. Wright, Manteno, Illinois. January 1920.

150. Modernola -- Modernola Company, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. January 1920. (Trademark filed 11/8/1918; used since 8/5/1918; re-filed by The Modernola Co., Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 7/14/1923.)

151. Morenus -- Morenus Piano Co., 341 West Superior Street, Chicago, Illinois. February 1918.

152. Mozart -- Mozart Talking Machine Co., 1432 N. 20th Street, St. Louis, Missouri. October 1916.

153. Munola -- The Munzer Manufacturing Corporation, 307 South 6th Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota. November 1917.

154. Musicola -- Musicola Talking Machine Company, 242 Knickerbocker Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. March 1920.

155. Mutual -- Mutual Talking Machine Company, Inc., 145 West 45th Street, New York City, New York. August 1916.

156. National Bluebird -- National Talking Machine Company, 118 East 28th Street, New York City, New York. August 1916.

157. Natural Voice -- Natural Voice Phonograph Company, Oneida, New York. January 1920.

158. Newman Brothers -- Newman Brothers Company, 410 South Michigan Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. April 1920.

159. Nightingale -- Nightingale Manufacturing Company, 422 North Armour Street, Chicago, Illinois. June 1918. (Trademark filed 3/25/1918; used since 11/1/1916.)

160. Olympian -- Cole and Dunas Music Co., 54 West Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois. January 1920. (Trademark filed 8/6/1920; used since 10/1/1918.)

161. Onken -- Oscar Onken Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. January 1920.

162. Operollo -- Operollo Phonograph Company, Inc., 420 Lightner Building, Detroit, Michigan. March 1917. (Trademark filed 1/4/1917 by Arthur Silwiersky, assignor to Operollo Phonograph Co.; used since 10/20/1916.)

163. Oranola -- Perfection Talking Machine Company, Inc., 129 De Graw Street, Brooklyn, New York. August 1919. (Trademark filed 8/15/1919; used since 8/6/1919.)

164. Oriola -- Metropolis Sales Company, 27 Union Square, New York City, New York. April 1917. (Mutual Trading Co., New York, filed applications on Oriola on 10/5/1918 and 8/23/1920, with used claimed since 1/15/1918; relation to this brand is unclear.)

165. Oro-Tone -- The Oro-Tone Company, 1000 George Street, Chicago, Illinois. June 1922.

166. Orsenigo -- Orsenigo Company, Inc., 110 West 42nd Street, New York City. February 1922.

167. Oxford -- The Mundler Corporation, 1123 Broadway, New York City. December 1920.

168. Pal -- Plaza Music Company, 18 West 20th Street, New York City, New York. June 1922.

169. Paramount -- Paramount Talking Machine Company, Port Washington, Wisconsin. February 1920. (Trademark filed 11/5/1917 by United Phonographs Corp., Port Washington; used since 10/20/1917.)

170. Parlephone -- E.E. Tower, St. Joseph, Missouri. April 1919.

171. Peerless -- Republic Phonograph Co., 18 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. February 1917.

172. Perfectrola -- Milwaukee Talking Machine Manufacturing Company, 416 4th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. October 1918. (Trademark filed 2/21/1916; used since 1/17/1916.)

173. Phoenix -- Phoenix Phonograph Company, 2504 West van Buren Street, Chicago, Illinois. August 1919.

174. Phon d'Amor -- Fritzsch Phonograph Co., 228 W. 7th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. November 1917. (Trademark filed 7/2/1917; used since 6/2/1917.)

175. Phono-Grand -- J.P. Seeburg Piano Company, Republic Building, Chicago, Illinois. November 1917. (Trademark filed 10/1/1917 by Justus P. Seeburg, Chicago; used since 7/1/1917.)

176. Phonographic Table -- Phonographic Table Co., 25 W. 32nd St., New York City. March 1917.

177. Phonola -- Caloric Sales Company, 1381 Continental and Commercial Bank Building, Chicago, Illinois. October 1916.

178. Phonolamp -- Electric Phonograph Company, 29 West 34th Street, New York City. August 1916. (Trademark filed 4/24/1918; use claimed, obviously in error, since approximately 4/1/1918.)

179. Piknik -- Piknik Portable Phonograph, Inc., Lakewood, New Jersey. November 1920.

180. Playerphone -- Playerphone Talking Machine Company, 802 Republic Building, Chicago, Illinois. August 1916. (Trademark filed 4/7/1916; used since 10/23/1915.)

181. Player-Tone -- Player Tone Talking Machine Company, 967 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. March 1920.

182. Playonola -- Playonola Talking Machine Co., 1210 3rd St., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. May 1920.

183. Plymouth -- Plymouth Phonograph Co., Plymouth, Wisconsin. June 1921.

184. Pooley -- Pooley Furniture Company, Inc., 16th Street and Indiana Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. June 1916.

185. Portola -- Portable Phonograph Co., Reserve Bank Building, Kansas City, Missouri. February 1920. (Trademark filed 10/11/1919 by Carroll E. Dodson, Kansas City; used since 10/1/1919.)

186. Portophone -- The Tri Sales Co., 616 Victoria Building, St. Louis, Missouri. December 1920.

187. Premier -- Premier Cabinet Company, Williamsport, Pennsylvania. August 1916. (Trademark filed 6/20/1916; used since 5/22/1916.)

188. Prima-Donna -- General Sales Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. May 1920.

189. Puritan -- United Phonographs Corporation, Sheboygan, Wisconsin. April 1918. (Trademark filed 1/15/1917; used since 10/1/1916.)

190. Qualitiphone -- Qualitiphone Sales Corporation, 17 East 42nd Street, New York City, New York. March 1922. (Trademark filed 2/24/1922 by Qualitiphone, Inc., New York; used since 12/15/1921.)

191. Ramosola -- Ramos-Eubank Phonograph Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Virginia. March 1919.

192. Re-Call -- The Huss Brothers Phonograph and Piano Company, 6 West Canal Blvd., Cincinnati, Ohio. January 1920. (Trademark filed 9/29/1919; used since 6/1/1919.)

193. Recordion -- Columbia Mantel Company, Leonard and Devoe Streets, Brooklyn, New York. November 1916. (Trademark filed 4/26/1919; used since 1/1917.)

194. Recruit -- Thornell-Manton, The Havermeyer Building at Courtland, Church, and Day Streets, New York City, New York. May 1918.

195. Reginaphone -- The Regina Company, 47 W. 34th Street, New York City, New York. May 1918.

196. Remington -- Remington Phonograph Corporation, 1662 Broadway, New York City, New York. June 1920. (Trademark filed 7/20/1920; used since 5/5/1920.)

197. Republic -- Republic Phonograph Co., 18 East Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. February 1917.

198. Retola -- Ausonia Reed Furniture Company, 844 Gerard Avenue, New York City, New York. October 1920.

199. Rishell -- Rishell Phonograph Company, Williamsport, Pennsylvania. September 1916. (A related company with a slightly different spelling--Rishel--is still in business in Williamsport.)

200. Riviera -- Riviera Talking Machine Company, 848 Eastman Street, Chicago, Illinois. March 1919.

201. Robinola -- Robinola Talking Machine Co., 119 E. 5th Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. June 1917. (The Robinola Phonograph Co., St. Louis, filed a trademark application on Robinola on 6/17/1920; its relation to this brand is not known.)

202. Robinson -- Robinson Phonograph Corporation, 2702 South Alameda Street, Los Angeles, California. August 1921.

203. Ross -- Ross Talking Machine Company, 22nd Street and Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 1920

204. Royal -- Royal Phonograph Co., Inc., 606 Courtland Ave., New York City. November 1919.

205. Savoy -- Savoy Gramophone Company, 530 Cherry Street, New York City. September 1916.

206. Saxola -- Sachs and Company, 425 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. May 1919.

207. Schubert -- Bell Talking Machine Corporation, 1 West 139th Street, New York City, New York. August 1917. (Trademark filed 7/7/1917; used since 6/25/1917.)

208. Shell-O-Phone -- Shell-O-Phone Talking Machine Company, North American Building, Chicago, Illinois. October 1918. (No trademark application; patent application filed 9/6/1919 for a phonograph using a conch shell for a horn.)

209. Silvertone -- Crescent Talking Machine Company, 89 Chamber Street, New York City, New York. February 1917. (No trademark application; no relation to the Sears brand.)

210. Singaphone -- Singaphone Talking Machine Company, Inc., 32 Union Square, New York City, New York. February 1917

211. Singerphone -- The Singerphone Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. June 1920.

212. Solophone -- The Solophone Co., 306 Sussex Street, Harrison, New Jersey. October 1916.

213. Solotone -- Solotone Talking Machines, Lititz, Pennsylvania. February 1919. (Hallett & Davis Piano Co., Boston, filed a tardemark application on Solophone on 1/17/1916; the relation to this brand is unknown.)

214. Sonata -- Kesner and Jerlaw, 41 West 34th Street, New York City, New York. February 1920. (Trademark filed 10/8/1919; used since 7/1/1919.)

215. Sona-Tone -- Sona-Tone Phonograph Inc., 110 West 40th Street, New York City. July 1919.

216. Spraytone -- C.D.M. Trading Company, 109 Lafayette Street, New York City. May 1922.

217. Starr -- Starr Piano Co., Richmond, Indiana. October 1916. (Trademark filed 6/27/1917, 1/29/1921, and 7/2/1924; first-use claim of 1/1/1907 applies to pianos, not phonographs.)

218. Steger -- Steger and Sons Piano Manufacturing Company, Wabash and Jackson Streets, Chicago, Illinois. January 1919.

219. Steinburn -- Stein-Burn Corporation, Heyworth Building, Madison and Wabash, Chicago, Illinois. July 1919.

220. Steinola -- The Steinola Co., 1221 West Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois. February 1917. (Trade-mark filed 3/10/1917; used since 3/1916.)

221. Sterling -- Sterling Phonograph Co., 285 N. 6th Street, Brooklyn, New York. October 1917.

222. Stewart -- Stewart Phonograph Corporation, 2827 Lincoln Street, Chicago, Illinois. November 1916. (Trademark filed 5/13/1916; used since 2/15/1916.)

223. Stodart -- Stodart Phonograph Company, 100 Southern Blvd, New York City. June 1919.

224. Stradivara -- The Compton-Price Company, Coshocton, Ohio. September 1916. (Trademark filed 6/28/1916; used since 4/20/1916.)

225. Strand -- Manufacturers Phonograph Co., New York City, New York. November 1921. (Trademark filed 3/15/1924; used since 1/1921.)

226. Strickler -- Strickler Manufacturing Company, 434 West Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. September 1919.

227. Supertone -- Supertone Talking Machine Co., 10 West 20th Street, New York City. August 1916. (Trademark filed 2/9/1920; used since 3/1916).

228. Supreme -- Superior Phonograph Co., 320 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. January 1920.

229. Swanson -- Swanson Sales Company, 308 W. Ontario Street, Chicago, Illinois. October 1922.

230. Tablatone -- DeRivas and Harris Manufacturing Company, 135th Street at Willow Avenue, New York City, New York. August 1919.

231. Tel-O-Tone -- Western News Company, 21 East Austin Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. August 1918. (Trademark filed 8/11/1919, assigned by Western News Co. to Tel-O-Tone Phonograph Co., Chicago; used since 6/1/1917.)

232. The Lucky 13 -- The Lucky 13 Phonograph Company, 3 East 12th Street, New York City, New York. September 1916.

233. Tiffany -- Tiffany Phonograph Sales Co., 1404 East 9th St., Cleveland, Ohio. October 1921.

234. Ton-O-Graf -- Ton-O-Graf Corporation, 112 East South Water Street, Chicago, Illinois. October 1917. (Trademark filed 7/3/1917 by Ivan P. Florsheim, Chicago; used since 6/1/1917.)

235. Tonkola -- William Tonk and Brother, 36th Street at 10th Ave., New York City. March 1918.

236. Tonola -- Tonola Phonograph Company, 11 South 7th Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota. May 1917. (Trademark filed 3/24/1916 by Louis A. Priess, Minneapolis; used since 8/1/1915.)

237. Toyphone -- Toyphone and Woodware Manufacturers, Inc., 130 West 18th Street, New York City, New York. January 1917.

238. Triton -- Triton Phonograph Co., 137 Fifth Avenue, New York. November 1916. (Trademark filed 8/13/1914; used since 1/1914.)

239. United -- United Talking Machine Co., 178 Emmet St., Newark, New Jersey. November 1916.

240. Usona -- Usona Talking Machine Company, 1977 Ogden Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. July 1919.

241. Valuphone -- Wizard Phonograph Co., Inc., 1977 Ogden Ave., Chicago, Illinois. March 1922.

242. Vanophone -- Garfield Manufacturing Co., Elyria, Ohio. August 1918. (Vanophone Company of New York filed a trademark application on Vanophone on 4/21/1915; relation unknown.)

243. Venus Belle -- Venus Company, 717 South Wells Street, Chicago Illinois. March 1920.

244. Verdiola -- Illinois Talking Machine Co., 56 West Washington St., Chicago, Illinois. July 1918.

245. Veritone -- Veritone Talking Machine Co., 145 West 45th St., New York City. August 1918.

246. Virginia -- W. P. Mertens Co., 107 W. Main Street, Charlottesville, Virginia. October 1919.

247. Virtuoso -- Republic Phonograph Co., 18 East Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. January 1917. (Trademark filed 1/31/1917; used since 11/1916.)

248. Vista -- Vista Talking Machine Company, The Wisconsin Chair Company, Port Washington, Wisconsin. August 1919.

249. Vit -- The Vit Talking Machine Company, 123 West Madison Street, Suite 412, Chicago, Illinois. March 1920.

250. Vitanola -- Vitanola Talking Machine Company, 208 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. November 1916. (Trademark filed 2/18/1915; used since 2/15/1915.)

251. Waddell -- The Music Table Company, Greenfield, Ohio. April 1920.

252. Waderola -- Wade Talking Machine Company, 12 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. March 1920.

253. Watrola -- Wartell Phonograph Company, 178 West Randolph Street, Chicago, Illinois. October 1919.

254. Wegman -- Wegman Talking Machine Company, 47 S. Clinton Avenue, Rochester, New York. October 1918.

255. Weser -- Weser Brothers, Inc., 520 West 43rd Street, New York City, New York. August 1917. (Trademark filed 4/16/1921; use claimed, obviously incorrectly, since 2/18/1921.)

256. Westrola -- The Wesley Company, Chicago, Illinois. June 1920.

257. Widdicomb -- Widdicomb Furniture Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. December 1917.

258. Wilson -- Thomas E. Wilson and Company, Chicago, Illinois. October 1917.

259. Windsor -- The Windsor Furniture Co., 1420 Carroll Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. October 1918.

260. Wolf -- Wolf Manufacturing Industries, Quincy, Illinois. October 1921.

261. Wonder -- Wonder Talking Machine Co., 113 4th Avenue, New York City. November 1916.

262. World -- World Phonograph Co., 218 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, Illinois. September 1917.

263. Yale -- Davis Sales and Manufacturing Company, 763 State Street, New Haven, Connecticut. September 1923.

Special thanks to Allan Sutton for supplying dates of trademark applications.